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一汽股份谈智能制造下的物流痛点与改善

2020-05-29 09:42 物流技术与应用

大牛时代平台DAODU:SHUZIHUAJISHUHEZHINENGHUACHANPINZHENGZAIYUELAIYUEDUODIBEIZHIZAOQIYEDEWULIUTIXISUOGUANGFANCAIYONG,BINGZHUBUFAHUICHUYUELAIYUEDADEZUOYONG。

智能制造正在促进制造方式变革和制造业产业升级,并将成为全球新一轮制造业竞争的制高点。数字化技术和智能化产品正在越来越多地被制造企业的物流体系所广泛采用,并逐步发挥出越来越大的作用。智能物流体系是一个新生事物,需要人们对其充分认识、精心准备、积极探索和科学应用,才会发挥出应有作用,实现预期目标。

一、智能制造下的智能物流体系

ZHINENGZHIZAOXITONGSHIYIZHONGYOUZHINENGJIQIHERENLEIZHUANJIAGONGTONGZUCHENGDEGAOXIAOXIETONGDEXITONG。TATONGGUOZHINENGZHUANGBEIDEZIZHUXUEXI、FENXI、TUILI、PANDUANHEJUECEDENGZHINENGHUODONG,SHIXIANKUODA、YANSHENHEBUFENQUDAIRENLEIZHUANJIAZAIZHIZAOGUOCHENGZHONGDENAOLILAODONGDEMUBIAO。

大牛时代平台ZHINENGZHIZAOXIADEZHINENGWULIUTIXI,JIUSHITONGGUOZHINENGHUACHANPIN(RUAGV、ZIDONGLITICANGKUHEWULIANWANGDENG),ZIZHUHUOFUZHUWANCHENGZHUANGXIE、FENJIAN、CUNCHU、PEISONGDENGWULIUZUOYE。

MUQIAN,ZHINENGHUADEWULIUZHUANGBEIYIJINGYUELAIYUEDUODIBEIYINGYONGDAOZHIZAOQIYEZHONG。ZAI线上配资 SHENGCHANWULIULINGYU,YIAGV、ZIDONGLITICANGKUDENGWEIDAIBIAODEZHINENGHUAWULIUJISHUSHEBEI,YIJINGZAIHENDUO线上配资 SHENGCHANQIYETUIGUANGYINGYONG,BINGZAISHENGCHANXIAOLVTISHENGHEZIYUANHELILIYONGDENGFANGMIANSHOUDAOLELIANGHAODEJINGJIXIAOYIHESHEHUIXIAOYI。DANGRAN,WOMENHAIBIXUQINGXINGRENSHIDAO,ZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIRENGSHIYIGEXINSHENGSHIWU,ZAIYINGYONGGUOCHENGZHONGBUHUIYIFANFENGSHUN,XUYAORENMENYIKEXUEDEFANGFAHEHOUJIBOFADETAIDU,JIJIZONGJIE,BUDUANTANSUO,JIFAHESHIFANGCHUZHINENGWULIUTIXIQIANGDADENENGLIANG。

JINGGUODUONIANBUXIENULI,ZHONGGUOYIQIYI“SHUZIQUDONGMEIMIAOCHUXING”WEIYUANJING,YI“YEWUFUNENG、CHANPINZHINENG、SHENGTAIZHIHUI、SHUJUZENGZHI”WEIMUBIAO,TANSUOXINGCHENGLEYITAOFUHEDANGQIANCHEQIZHUANXINGXUQIU、KECAOZUOKELUODIDESHUZIHUAPINGTAIJIAGOUHEJISHUTIXI。MIANXIANGWEILAI,ZHONGGUOYIQIJIANGYISHUJUWEIYINQING,SHIXIANHEXINYEWUDESHUZIHUA、JIAZHIHUA、CHUANGXINHUA,TONGGUOGOUJIANWANZHENGDEZHINENGHUAGUANLITIXI,SHIXIANWEIKEHUCHUANGZAOJIZHITIYANDECHANPINHEFUWU。

二、智能物流体系的建设目标

大牛时代平台ZAI线上配资 SHENGCHANGONGYINGLIANZHONG,WULUNCHUANTONGWULIUMOSHI,HAISHIZHINENGWULIUMOSHI,SHIWULIUCONGGONGYINGSHANGZHIZAOWANBIDAOZHIZAOSHANGSHIXIANZHENGCHEZHUANGPEI,JIBENZUOYEBUZHOUMEIYOUFASHENGBIANHUA,BIANHUADEZHISHIZUOYEDESHOUDUAN(JIANTU1)。

ERQIE,MANZUSHENGCHANZHIZAOXUQIU,YIXIAOLVTISHENGWEISHOUDUAN,SHIXIAN“ZIYUANZHANYONGZUIXIAOHUA”,RENGRANSHIWULIUTIXIYONGHENGDEMUBIAO。

NEIME,ZHINENGWULIUTIXISHIRUHETONGGUORENJIXIETONG,TIGAOZUOYEXIAOLVBINGSHIXIANZIYUANZHANYONGZUIXIAOHUANI?CONGMUQIANDEZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIYINGYONGSHIJIANHEFAZHANFANGXIANGDEZONGTIQINGKUANGLAIKAN,ZHUYAOTIXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN,RUTU2SUOSHI:

大牛时代平台TONGGUOCHELUXIETONGXITONG,GOUJIANZHINENGWURENJIASHIYUNSHUTIXITIDAIRENGONGJIASHI,TISHENGKACHEYUNXINGXIAOLV;

大牛时代平台YILINGBUJIANZHINENGHUARUCHANGYANSHOUTIDAIRENGONGDETONGLEIZUOYE,TISHENGYANSHOUSUDUHEZHUNQUELV;

大牛时代平台LINGBUJIANZHINENGCUNCHU,TISHENGKUWEIKONGJIANLIYONGLV,JIANSHAODUICUNCHUZIYUANDEZHANYONG;

大牛时代平台GENJUSHENGCHANXIANCHELIANGSHUNXUHEDUIYINGDEWULIAOQINGDAN,SHIXIANLINGBUJIANDEZHINENGJIANXUAN,TISHENGFENJIANZUOYEXIAOLV;

YIAGVSHIXIANLINGBUJIANXIANGSHENGCHANXIANDEZHINENGPEISONG,SHIXIANWURENHUAZUOYE,TISHENGGONGJIXIAOLV;

大牛时代平台DUIZUOYEFUHEDA、HUANJINGJIANKUDEZUOYEGANGWEI,YIZHINENGZHUANGBEITIDAIRENGONGZUOYE,JIANGDIRENGONGCHENGBEN,TISHENGZUOYEXIAOLV。

大牛时代平台XIANGJIAOYUCHUANTONGWULIUTIXI,ZHINENGWULIUTIXIBUJINTISHENGLEZUOYEXIAOLV,ERQIESHIXIANLEZIYUANZHANYONGYOUHUAHELAODONGLICHENGBENJIANGDI,HAIJIEJUELEYIXIESHEHUIWENTI。LIRU,CHUANTONGMOSHIXIADEWULIUZUOYE,DUIZUOYERENYUANDEJISHUSHUIPINGYAOQIUYANGE,RENYUANPEIXUNCHENGBENGAO、ZHOUQIZHANG。ZAIZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIZHONG,YOUYUZHINENGSHEBEIDETOURUSHIYONG,JIANGDILEZUOYERENYUANDEJINENGYAOQIU,ZAIJIANGDIPEIXUNCHENGBENDETONGSHI,HAIZAIMOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGHUANJIELEJISHUGONGZHONGHEWULIUSIJIDUANQUEDESHEHUIWENTI;ZAIRU,ZAITIAOJIANJIANKUDEZUOYEHUANJINGZHONG,YIZHINENGHUAZHUANGBEITIDAIRENGONGZUOYE,GENGNENGTIXIANRENXINGHUAGUANLI。ZAI2020NIANCHU,YOUYUXINGUANYIQINGDEBAOFA,HENDUODIQUJIANDERENYUANLIUDONGSHOUZU,DAOZHIYIXIECHUANTONGDELAODONGMIJIXINGQIYEFUGONGKUNNAN,ERZHINENGHUACHENGDUBIJIAOGAODEQIYE,YOUYUDUIRENYUANSHULIANGHEJINENGYILAIXINGXIANGDUIJIAOXIAO,BIJIAORONGYIDADAOFUGONGDETIAOJIAN,FUGONGZUZHIXIANGDUIBIJIAORONGYIYIXIE。

三、智能物流体系建设中的痛点

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痛点一:规划时难以精准提出智能装备的技术要求,导致投入运营后整个体系的功能受到了影响。智能物流体系中,为确保总体功能的实现,不仅需要协同设备作业,智能设备之间的炒股配资 流也必须高效协同(高精准、低时延)。由于受专业知识的局限,我们在对智能设备技术要求方面常常难做到有的放矢。比如,不同品牌的智能装备之间编程语言不统一,调度系统兼容性差,通讯效率低,故障处理周期长、成本高和不同功能智能设备之间协同能力较弱,进而造成智能体系“低智商”的问题,例如:AGV只能在规定的区域进行简单的智能动作,在固定的路线运行,在固定地点加减速,完成固定任务,由于缺少集中调度管控系统,无法实现智能装备进行任务调度、协调;无论线路是否拥堵,任务是否均衡,都无法实现任务的统筹合理分配,只能“循规蹈矩”做着“规定动作”……除此之外,备用车辆由于需要写入任务和路线而无法快速实现替补,也是缺少中心调度管控的一个无法克服的痛点。在这种情况下,智能物流系统的效率优势自然难以体现出来。

痛点二:“非标准化”影响了智能物流体系能力优势的发挥。在传统的零部件入厂验收环节,由验收员扫描零部件的箱标签,完成炒股配资 上传和零部件的入厂验收,容错能力(对箱标签的位置和质量要求并不是很高)较强。

大牛时代平台ERZHINENGHUAYANSHOUXITONGDELIUCHENG,XUYAOMAFANGLINGBUJIANBAOZHUANGXIANGDETUOPANZIDONGZAIGUNDAOSHANGTONGGUO(RUTU3ZHONGZUOBIANSUOSHI),GUNDAOLIANGCEDEBIAOQIANSHIBIEZHUANGZHIJIANGSAOMIAODUQUXIANGBIAOQIANSHANGDE炒股配资 ,JINXINGLINGBUJIANSHULIANG、ZHONGLEIDENGSHIBIE,BINGYUSHENGCHANJIHUADEWULIUCHOUCUOXITONGDUIBIPANDUAN,炒股配资 WUWUHOUJIKEWANCHENGRUKU炒股配资 DEZIDONGLURU(RUTU3ZHONGYOUBIANSUOSHI),ZHEIZHONGZUOYEFANGSHIDUIXIANGBIAOQIANDEWEIZHIHEZHILIANGYAOQIUJIAOGAO。ZAISHIJIZUOYEGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYUJINGCHANGHUIFASHENGBIAOQIANFUZHEWEIZHI、FANGXIANG,YIJIBIAOQIANDAYINZHILIANGDENGYU“BIAOZHUNHUA”YAOQIUCUNZAICHAYIDEQINGKUANG,ZHISHI炒股配资 WUFADUQUHUOWUDU,YINGXIANGLEZUOYEXIAOLV。

LINGWAI,ZAICHUANSUOCHESHILIKUHEDUIDUOJISHILIKUDEWUPINCUNCHUGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYULINGBUJIANBAOZHUANGRONGQIWAIKUOCHICUNDEFEIBIAOZHUNHUA(TONGYONGXINGRUO),CHANGCHANGXUYAOLANGFEICUNCHUHUOWEIDEKONGJIAN,ZHEIYANGYEYINGXIANGLEZIDONGHUALITIKUDEKONGJIANLIYONGLV。

痛点三:“勉强”的运营环境,增加了智能设备作业的失误频次。根据发展需要,一汽集团旗下的红旗工厂需要在旧工厂基础上进行产能提升和制造体系的智能化升级,总装车间在工艺和物流环节投入了近300台AGV以替代生产线的板式传输链和物流牵引车。由于旧工厂场地狭窄(AGV转弯困难)、空间钢构密集(无线通讯不畅)和一些人为干扰(导致AGV急停避障)等方面的原因,AGV发生碰撞和脱轨等情况时有发生(图4是总装车间现场图,其中可见地面密布的AGV导航磁线和空中密布的钢构)。

大牛时代平台JIUGONGCHANGYINGJIANFANGMIANDE“DUANBAN”,YIZHIZHIYUEZHEZHINENGWULIUXITONGGONGNENGDEZHENGCHANGFAHUI。

痛点四:对智能物流体系缺少科学的认识。大牛时代平台各级人员,特别是一些管理者,对智能物流体系缺少科学认识,存在认识误区。这些认识误区主要表现在:

(1)ZHINENGHUASHIQIYE“BAOYIBAIBING”DESHOUDUAN,KEYIJIEJUEQIYEJINGYINGFAZHANDEGEZHONGWENTI;

(2)ZHINENGHUATIXISHI“ZHONGKANBUZHONGYONG”DE“HUAJIAZI”,BUHUIDUISHENGCHANJINGYINGCHANSHENGTAIDABANGZHU;

(3)GOUJIANZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXISHIQINGERYIJUDESHI,SHAOSHUJIGERENZUOQILAIJIUKEYILE;

大牛时代平台(4)ZHINENGHUATIXIGAOSHENMOCE,WOMENKEZHANGWOBULE……ZHEIYIXILIERENSHIWUQU,YEGOUCHENGLETUIXINGZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIDEYIGEGEZHANGAI。

YISHANGZHEIXIETONGDIANSHIQIYESHIXIANZHINENGHUAMUBIAODEBANJIAOSHI,ZUAIZHEZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIDEWANSHANYUSHENGJI,YINGXIANGZHEWULIUTIXIYUANJINGDESHIXIAN。YINCI,ZHIDINGYOUZHENDUIXINGGAISHANCUOSHI,WEIHOUXUGONGZUODIANDINGLIANGHAOJICHU,YESHIDANGXIADEZHONGYAORENWUZHIYI。

四、智能物流体系的改善建议

ZHUIQIUZHINENGWULIUTIXIYUANJINGSHIXIANDEGUOCHENG,YEJIUSHIYIGECHIXUGAISHANDEGUOCHENG。DUITONGDIANJINXINGSIKAOBINGBUDUANGAISHAN,SHIZHINENGHUAZOUXIANGCHENGSHUDEYOUXIAOTUJINGZHIYI。ZAIGOUJIANHESHENGJIZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIDESHIJIGONGZUOZHONG,WOMENJIEHEYIXIEGONGZUOJINGLIHEDUIXIANZHUANGDESIKAO,ZHENDUIZHINENGWULIUTIXIGOUJIANHEYUNYINGGUOCHENGDETONGDIAN,ZONGJIELEYIXIEGAISHANJIANYI。

一是要明确需求。大牛时代平台精准提出智能装备的技术要求,是解决构建智能化物流体系痛点的有效手段之一。在构建智能化物流体系的时候,我们曾经面对过AGV“低智商”的问题,经过这个“吃一堑长一智”的过程,我们及时开展了系列改善活动,例如:进行多轮业务培训、改善逻辑控制模式和增加AGV中心管控系统等多项措施。新的改善方案实施后,AGV之间的沟通效率显著提高,备用车上线时间大幅缩短,AGV可及时根据路况智能选择行走路线(相对于原来的“公交路线”模式,改善后的模式被形容为“出租车方式”),实现了“智商提高”。

二是要制定规则,形成标准。大牛时代平台构建和实施智能化物流体系是一把“双刃剑”。一方面,可以带来运行效率的提升,减少资源占用,降低物流成本;另一方面,它的需求也是“刚性的”,需要与关联要素精准匹配,防止因出现“短板效应”影响物流体系整体优势的发挥。因此,前文提到的智能化验收装备,因箱标签的附着位置和包装器具标准化的问题影响验收作业效率的情况,其改善措施就是与供应商一起对箱标签附着作业和包装器具外廓尺寸实现系列化、标准化,通过对“游戏规则”的制定和遵守,确保“游戏”顺利、持久和高质量地进行下去,并为后续改善打下基础。

三是要选择适合的物流装备。一般来说,实现相同功能的智能装备,其作业模式可能是多种多样的。如AGV的导航方式存在电磁导航、二维码导航、激光导航、视觉导航等等,各有优劣。从技术成熟度、投资和运营成本、作业环境等诸多因素的综合考虑,才能选择出适合的产品型号和作业方式。因此,不断完善产品综合评价和选用体系,进行科学、理性判断,才能制定和优化物流方案,并发挥出应有的效能。

四是要进行系统思考。系统思考就是从整体上对影响所关注项目行为的各种因素及其相互关系,进行全局性思考。物流体系在全社会范围内所处的位置,如图5所示。

ZAIGOUJIANDEZHINENGWULIUTIXIZHIZHONG,JIHUDUISUOYOUTONGDIANDEGAISHAN,JUNBIXUYAOSHENGJIDAOSHANGYICENGJIDETIXIZHONG,CAIHUIZHAODAOGAISHANZHIDAO(YECHENGWEI“SHENGWEISIKAO”)。RU:WULIUYUGONGYIXIETONGDETONGDIAN,XUYAOZAIZHIZAOTIXIZHONGGAISHANJIEJUE;XIANGBIAOQIAN、QIJU“BUBIAOZHUN”DETONGDIAN,XUYAOZAIGONGYINGLIANTIXIZHONGGAISHANJIEJUE;GUANJIANHEXINJISHUQUESHIDETONGDIAN,XUYAOZAIQUANSHEHUIHUOZHEXINGYEDEFANWEINEIJIAYIGAISHANHEJIEJUE。

五、结束语

YIXIAOLVTISHENGLAIZENGQIANGQIYEDEJINGZHENGLIBINGBUDUANMANZUYONGHUXUQIU,SHIQIYEYONGHENGDEZHUIQIU。ZHINENGHUASHISHIXIANQIYEZHUIQIUDEBIYAOSHOUDUAN。ZHINENGHUAWULIUTIXIDEGOUJIAN、TUIGUANGYUSHENGJIJINCHENG,JIANGBANSUIZHEAI、QUKUAILIAN、5GDENGXINJISHUDEDANSHENGERBUDUANJIASU。QIYEZAILINGRENYANHUALIAOLUAN、CENGCHUBUQIONGDEXINJISHUMIANQIAN,GENGXUYAOBAOCHIQINGXINGDETOUNAO,KEXUEYANPAN,HOUJIBOFADIGOUJIANZHINENGWULIUTIXI,CAINENGGENGHAODIZHICHENGZHINENGZHIZAOSHENGJIHEQIYEFAZHAN。